If you’ve ever exercised, chances are you’ve had a strain or sprain at some time or another. They’re the most common type of sports injury, but they can also occur during everyday activities such as work, housework and gardening.
Although they often feel the same, strains and sprains are different conditions because they affect different structures in the body.
Strains are caused by damage to muscles or tendons. A tendon is a band of fibrous connective tissue that joinsa muscle to a bone.
Sprains, however, are caused by damage to ligaments. These are the bands of connective tissue that join bones together in a joint.
Both strains and sprains are caused by a stretch or tear in the tissue, but with strains the injured tissue is a muscle or tendon, whereas with sprains, the tissue is a ligament.
Acute strains occur immediately after injury to the muscle or tendon. This could be caused by a blow (like landing heavily after a jump) or overstretching, which might occur when lifting a heavy object. Strains can also be chronic, developing over time from overuse of muscles and tendons during prolonged repetitive movement.
People with a strain may experience pain, muscle spasm, muscle weakness, inflammation or cramping. Muscles that commonly get strains are in the back, hamstring, elbow (especially in racquet sports or throwing activities), and hand (especially in sports that require gripping like gymnastics, golf or rowing).
Sprains are almost always caused by a blow or fall that knocks the joint out of position, stretching and sometimes tearing the ligaments. Typical symptoms are pain, bruising, swelling and inflammation. The joints most at risk for a sprain vary depending on the activities. For example, jumping (as in hurdling, netball, volleyball or basketball) or running on an uneven surface can cause foot, knee or ankle sprains, and falling on an outstretched hand can cause wrist sprain.
The severity of these types of injuries are graded from first to third degree, depending on how much tissue damage there is.
First degree: The tendons, muscles or ligaments have been overstretched, but may not be torn, or may be only slightly torn. Pain is often mild, and there is generally little or no swelling or bruising. You should be able to put weight on the affected joint in a first-degree strain or sprain, because the joint is still stable. These strains heal in 2 to 3 weeks.
Second degree: The tissue fibres have been stretched and partially torn. These injuries are usually accompanied by bruising, swelling and moderate pain, and you may have difficulty using the affected joint or muscle. Strains like this heal in 3 to 6 weeks.
Third degree: This is a severe strain or sprain, where the tendon or ligament is almost completely torn. Not surprisingly, these injuries usually cause severe pain, swelling and bruising, and you will be unable to use the affected body part. These strains and sprains are serious and often require surgery and rehabilitation. Healing can take several months.
- Always warm up before sport or exercise, and do stretching exercises daily
- Wear the right shoes: make sure they fit well and replace them if the tread is worn out
- Ease into exercise: don’t rush headlong into a new fitness program – start slowly and gently; build muscle strength with a conditioning program
- Avoid running on uneven surfaces
- Don’t exercise or play sport if you’re tired or in pain
- Eat a well-balanced diet for muscle and joint health
- Use or wear protective equipment for sports
RICE: RICE stands for rest, ice, compression and elevation. It’s the first thing to do if you’ve hurt a muscle or joint. It’s best to stop exercising and limit other activities for a while, and put an ice pack on the affected area 4 to 8 times a day for about 20 minutes each time. Bandage the site or use elastic wrap to apply compression – this helps to reduce swelling. Try to keep the injured area elevated to above the level of the heart, by placing it on a pillow. This also helps to reduce swelling.
Pain relievers: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as Nurofen can help with the pain after a strain or sprain. Unlike paracetamol, pain relievers like Nurofen are anti-inflammatories, so they can reduce inflammation too. As well as tablets, some anti-inflammatories are available as gels or creams that can be applied to the skin around a strain or sprain.
See your doctor: It’s a good idea to get a strain or sprain checked out, especially if you think it may be a second or third degree injury. Mild strains and sprains may not need medical attention, unless there is no improvement after 2 or 3 days.
Always read the label. Use only as directed. Incorrect use could be harmful. If symptoms persist consult your healthcare professional. All information presented on these web pages is not meant to diagnose or prescribe. In all health related matters please contact your doctor.
- American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. OrthoInfo. Sprains and strains: what’s the difference? Available from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00111 Accessed 3 September 2014
- European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Gender issues in safety and health at work – a review. 2003
- About health. Sprains and strains. Available from: http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/injuries/a/sprains.htm Accessed 3 September 2014
- How stuff works. Strain vs sprain. Available from: http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/first-aid/strain-vs-sprain.htm Accessed 3 September 2014
- Paolini JA, Orchard JW. The use of therapeutic medications for soft-tissue injuries in sports medicine. MJA 2005; 183: 384-88.
This article is for general information only and not intended as a substitute for medical advice. All information presented on these web pages is not meant to diagnose or prescribe. In all health related matters, always consult your healthcare professional.
Always read the label. Use only as directed. Incorrect use could be harmful. If symptoms persist consult your healthcare professional.